What is this a list of? The answer is below in extended.
- discharged soldiers
- discharged jailbirds
- escaped galley slaves
- maquereaux [pimps]
- brothel keepers
- organ grinders
- knife grinders
According to Karl Marx, these were all representative members of what he called the lumpenproletariat
, this being the underclass that was devoid of class consciousness and easily manipulated by propaganda. Wikipedia notes, "lumpenproletariat
has sometimes been rendered as 'social scum', 'dangerous classes', 'ragamuffin', and 'ragged-proletariat'."
Source: The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte
by Karl Marx, 1852.
On the pretext of founding a benevolent society, the lumpenproletariat of Paris had been organized into secret sections, each section led by Bonapartist agents, with a Bonapartist general at the head of the whole. Alongside decayed roués with dubious means of subsistence and of dubious origin, alongside ruined and adventurous offshoots of the bourgeoisie, were vagabonds, discharged soldiers, discharged jailbirds, escaped galley slaves, swindlers, mountebanks, lazzaroni, pickpockets, tricksters, gamblers, maquereaux [pimps], brothel keepers, porters, literati, organ grinders, ragpickers, knife grinders, tinkers, beggars — in short, the whole indefinite, disintegrated mass, thrown hither and thither, which the French call la bohème; from this kindred element Bonaparte formed the core of the Society of December 10.