Parkinson’s Dream Weapon

How, in 1940, a Bell Labs engineer invented a guidance system for anti-aircraft guns in a dream. Source: The Bigelow Society

Carl Gustav Jung, the Swiss psychologist, elaborated the theory that the solution to a difficult problem can somehow suddenly crystallize in the unconscious mind.

A compelling example in favour of this theory concerns an engineer, David Bigelow Parkinson. The time was spring, 1940 and Parkinson was then a young engineer working at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York City in the specialized field of electromechanical design. He was working on improving an instrument called an automatic level recorder. A small potentiometer [an instrument for measuring electromotive forces] controlled a pair of magnetic clutches which in turn controlled a pen to plot a logarithm.

Meanwhile, the top story in the headlines concerned the evacuation of hundreds of thousands of stranded Allied soldiers from the beaches of Dunkirk, France across the Channel to England. This news greatly preoccupied Parkinson's mind along with that of his work. And the two ideas came together in a dream, which he later described in an unpublished memoir:

I found myself in a gun pit or revetment with an anti-aircraft gun crew . [A] gun there. was firing occasionally, and the impressive thing was that every shot brought down an airplane! After three or four shots one of the men in the crew smiled at me and beckoned me to come closer to the gun. When I drew near he pointed to the exposed end of the left trunnion. Mounted there was the control potentiometer of my level recorder!

Parkinson realized the full significance of his dream the following morning. If his potentiometer could control the pen on the recorder, something similar could, with the right engineering, control an anti-aircraft gun. At the time, the complex mechanical systems controlling these guns were not very accurate and could not be mass-produced.

Parkinson discussed the idea that morning with his boss, Clarence A. Lovell. They worked for several days writing a report and then met with Lovell's boss. Just before this meeting, on 18 June 1940, Parkinson realized he would need a diagram to explain his ideas so made a quick sketch on a sheet of plain white typingpaper.

The company submitted a proposal for exploratory work on an electromechanical system for directing antiaircraft guns to the Army Signal Corps which was subsequently approved. An engineering model was delivered for testing to the Army at Fort Monroe MD on 1 December 1941. The result of Parkinson's dream began rolling off the assembly lines early in 1943. More than 3000 of the gun directors, designated the M-9, were built.

Many thousands of shells were fired to bring down a single aircraft with the older directors; the M9 brought the number down to around 100 shells per hit on an aircraft.

Thus Parkinson's unconscious revelation led to one of the most effective pieces of air-defense technology in World War II.

Green Bay Press Gazette - Apr 22, 1947

     Posted By: Alex - Thu Oct 08, 2020
     Category: Sleep and Dreams | 1940s | Weapons

I remember the story, told to me by my high school chemistry teacher, of August Kekule, a chemist who worked in the mid-19th century, solving the puzzle of the structure of the benzene molecule following a daydream (as he described it.)

After that I didn't feel guilty about sitting and daydreaming during classes.
Posted by KDP on 10/08/20 at 11:54 AM
Never mind Jung, who was even more of a fraud than his master Freud. It's been well known among technicians and scientists for centuries that yes, sometimes you have to let your ideas ferment in the back of your brain to let them ripen into a solution to your problem. Nothing to do with para-psychological woo, it's just a matter of humans having only a limited amount of concentration but a nearly unlimited amount of basal ganglia.
Posted by Richard Bos on 10/10/20 at 11:23 AM
All you have to do is come up with something as profound as the Theories of Relativity. Then you can call your daydreaming "thought experiments" (or whatever you want).
Posted by Virtual in Carnate on 10/10/20 at 01:07 PM
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